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Found in high latitudes in the polar regions primarily in Alaska, Canada, Russia, Greenland, Iceland and Scandinavia, as well as sub-Antarctic islands. The Tundra biome is composed of 36 ecoregions.



This biome is a treeless polar desert found in high latitudes in the polar regions. Dry winters and months of total darkness present extremely frigid temperatures. The tundra supports communities of sedges and heaths as well as dwarf shrubs. Vegetation growing in patches reflects changes in soil and moisture gradients. This biome receives most of its water in the form of snow during the winter. Soils tend to be acidic and saturated with water where not frozen.



Some ecoregions within the Tundra biome show seasonal concentrations of breeding waterfowl, shorebirds, lemming, and caribou. Some tundra host a significant level of plant endemism.



Seasonality in this biome is characterized by radical freeze-thaw and light-darkness annual cycles

Due to seasonal thawing and low lying grass, swarms of mosquitos and subsequently birds take place - this is a natural event that should be undisturbed but prepared for

Reflectivity of terrestrial surface will create strong glare effect

Provide buffers for large mammals to have uninterrupted hunting and foraging territory