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Can be found in large, discontinuous patches on the equatorial belt and between tropics around the world, including Indo-Malayan, Australasia and Oceania archipelagos, the Afrotropical belt, and the Neotropical area from southern México to the Amazon Basin. The Tropical and Subtropical Broadleaf Forests biome is composed of 225 ecoregions.



Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests are characterized by low variability in annual temperature and high levels of rainfall (>200cm/yr). Forest composition is dominated by evergreen, semi-evergreen, and deciduous tree species. This biome contains the highest levels of species diversity in any terrestrial major habitat type. Generally, the biodiversity is highest in the forest canopy. Forest structure can be divided in five layers: overstory canopy with emergent crowns, medium layer of canopy, lower canopy, shrub level, and understory.



Half of the world species live in these forests. A square kilometer may be home to more that 1,000 tree species and each tree can harbor thousands of species of different groups. The ecoregions that form this biome around the world contain different species communities. Some of the well known species are hornbills, toucans, harpy eagle, apes, monkeys, gorillas, deer, snakes, and big cats. All levels of the forests contain an enormous diversity of invertebrate species.



Create niche diversity along the vertical axis by varying light and wind exposure and, subsequently, humidity to promote biodiversity

Leverage the highly generative yet highly degradative cycles of living matter - trade designing for permanence for for cycling in this ecosystem

Consider mimicking the effect of a fallen tree opening up the canopy bringing light to the forest floor - create the conditions conducive for new growth and activity

Promote corridors and ecological linkages with adjacent sites