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Can be found in Southern Mexico, Southeastern Africa, central India, Indochina, Madagascar, New Caledonia, Eastern Bolivia, Central Brazil, some areas in the Caribbean, valleys of the Northern Andes, and along the coasts of Ecuador and Peru. The most diverse dry forests in the world occur in southern Mexico and in the Bolivian lowlands. The Tropical and Subtropical Broadleaf Dry Forests biome is composed of 59 ecoregions.



These forests occur in climates that are warm year-round and may receive several hundred centimeters of rain per year. They experience long dry seasons that may last for several months. Species are adapted to these seasonal droughts. Deciduous trees predominate the forest and lose their leaves during the drought periods to conserve water during dry periods. The opening of the canopy allows the growth of a thick understory. These forests are not as diverse than rainforests, but they host a wide variety of flora and fauna.



Species presence and dominance varies between Northern and Southern Tropical and Subtropical Broadleaf Forests. Some distinctive species are Teak (Tectona spp.), Ebony (Ziziphus spp.), algarrobo (Prosopis spp.), Tsalam (Lysiloma spp.), Tropical cedar (Cedrela spp.), and Ceiba (Ceiba spp.) Fauna in these forests include monkeys, large cats, parrots, rodents, ground dwelling birds, and reptiles.



This biome is marked annually by dry and rainy seasons - water management planning should occur over an annual cycle to fully account for seasonality

Fire as well as flooding are typica natural disturbances - incorporate resilience planning for these two risks into design and operations plans

Promote soil stabilization to mimic the tree root systems

In the dry season, resources for wildlife are scarce - provide native, dry-season flowering trees and water sources during the dry season to promote biodiversity

Allow the accumulation of organic material from deciduous trees to promote soil generation and protection - this is a consideration to be balanced with fire resilience planning